LCD display technology got the better of plasma display technology in the days of their strong rivalry for dominance. While LCD display remains a force to reckon with in display technology, the competition in the market is getting stiffer by the day with new and improved display technologies coming on board.

It has thinner and higher display quality and less energy consumption potential.

Oled And Wearables Posing A Strong Challenge

It is now the turn of LCD to remain afloat in the screen display market with strong competition from new and emerging display technologies that are promising.

It is no longer news that in 2017, OLED display is a better display technology in some respect when compared to the capabilities of LCD display. It has thinner and higher display quality and less energy consumption potential. The likes of major LCD screen manufacturers like Samsung, LG, and Sharp are applying innovations to stay on in the market with an LCD display improvement.

To ask how much longer it will take for the reign of LCD is to ask if there is still a future left of LCD display technology. Obviously, there is much to still expect from LCD development. It’s not going to the archives just yet.

The group plans to manufacture Flexible LCD panels with their technology.

Japan Display Manufactures Flexible LCD Panels To Challenge OLED

For future iPhone’s use, Japan Display, a company comprising the likes of Sony, Toshiba, and Hitachi, the major supplier of screens for Apple phones has unveiled plans to fight it out with OLED panel production. The approach is to stick with LCD display but with improvement on the existing one. The group plans to manufacture Flexible LCD panels with their technology.

With a move to begin the mass production in 2018, the company is working to adopt plastic layers and not the traditional layer of glass. The panel is hoped to be as flexible and bendable as OLED and good enough for smartphone screen manufacture like those on Samsung’s Galaxy Edge collections.

This is strongly a positive for the future of LCD to still be here for long in display technology.

With the move on LCD Display technology, Apple is already looking in the direction of LCD panels with flexibility features.  According to the officials of Japan Display, smartphone manufacturers are set to adopt bendable LCD for their production for some years ahead. Japan Display is also hopeful of selling the product for use in car dashboards and computers.

Increasing Investment From The Chinese Market

With the Chinese government strongly backing the display technology growth in China, the economy of the Chinese is strongly closing up the gap that existed between them and the South Korean market in the manufacture of LCD screens. It is expected that the Chinese market will account for 27% of the global LCD screen production by 2020 from its current 16% production capacity.

Clearly, the future of LCD is still bright even with the emergence of new display technologies like OLED competing strongly. The strategy adopted by Japan display is the right approach to adopt to remain competitive in the LCD display market.

In recent times, LCD display technology has been used for classroom teaching. By connecting the LCD projector to a computer, a better view for students can be realized with LCD screen technology. Holding general meetings no longer requires a whiteboard and note taking by participants. With LCD screen touch technology made available by Sharp, a major manufacturer of the technology, you can have your company’s meetings and functions by utilizing the functionality of the LCD display technology in this 21st century.

There are lot other areas of use in our everyday life.

Here are some unconventional uses you may find in your neighborhood.

Fitness And Smart Band

In our very dynamic 21st century, the common trend today is the wearable and flexible technology that is always in the news. Smartband from sharp is a typical example of an improved technology in LCD.

The Smartband LCD uses only a negligible amount of energy, an amazing 1,000 times less energy consumption.

This kind of wearable is also common with the health sector for body organs and health monitoring purposes.

Embedding Into Contact Lens

The adoption of LCD technology in the optical field is one major impact in the 21 century in medicine. The LCD computer display is embedded in the device. This is a step in the right direction towards totally pixilated contact lenses.

The technology is expected to spread across from the medical to other related industries like cosmetics. With the development of flexible displays, curved LCD panels will make the implementation easier to achieve.  The currently applied LED lenses do not allow for full pixel display on the contact lens’ surface.

Gesture Recognition

Development in LCD screens allow for screen touch operation on computers without using a keyboard or a mouse. With interactive capability in computers, you can alter the status of objects by just making a move of the hands. This gives the LCD screen the ability to recognize what is right in front of it. With appropriate computer software installed, gesture recognition is a plus to make using your computer easier.

Planner Systems and Sharp are at the forefront of this technology.

 A Cooler With Inbuilt LCD

LCD display technology has application in some items we use for domestic convenience. A product named Liddup is a cooler that is designed with inbuilt LCD lights in it. The LCD light illuminates the content of the cooler for you to have a clearer view of the contents in it.

LCD Kiosk

LCD kiosk is another innovation and unconventional use of LCD in today’s modern world. The kiosk can serve as both a sales point and an advertisement channel for products.

Though it may be common in some regions, it still qualifies as a unique application of LCD display technology in the 21st century.

LCD display technology will continue to find its way into many applications that may ordinarily not be considered to be normal. With innovations, it is still a promising ground for LCD display technology to continue to gain prominence in various application areas.

The Nematic phase is one of the two major phases of liquid crystals, the other being Smetic phase. The Nematic phase is closer to a liquid substance than to a solid substance.

Twisted Nematic (TN) LCD describes a thin-film transistor LCD found in calculators, digital watches, smartphones and computer monitors.

The introduction of TN LCD technology in the 1970s was a breakthrough in display technology to help the commercialization of LCDs in electronic devices.

How It Works

TN display technology uses nematic liquid crystal placed in the midst of glass substrates dusted with ITO (indium-tin-oxide). The ITO is in turn coated with layers that rub in a direction.

Polarized light manipulation is the underlying principle in TN display technology. As light enters the TN cell, there is a twist in the polarization state with the liquid crystal director.

Advantages Of Twisted Nematic LCD Technology

The advantages in using TN panels made the TN LCD technology to be adopted for portable electronics in the 1990s.

  1. Not Expensive

TN liquid display crystal technology is easy to implement. This means inexpensive manufacturing requirements for industries and an affordable end product for consumers. This has made the use of TN LCD to serve as a good replacement for CRT and LED technologies. It is also a cheaper alternative to newer technologies like AMOLED and IPS.

  1. Power Consumption Efficiency

TN technology does not need any current requirement to function. It operates with low voltages. For this, it can be operated with batteries and other low power sources.

  1. Has A Good Refresh Rate And Response Time

The response time of a pixel is the time lapse required for a pixel to change from a state to another. The unit of measurement is milliseconds. The smaller, the better. The refresh rate, in contrast, is the frequency at which the image of a display is refreshed. It is measured in Hertz. The superior refresh rate and pixel response time give the Twisted Nematic LCD technology the capability to display faster images in a short period of time.

Disadvantages Of Twisted Nematic LCD Technology

The disadvantages of TN LCD technology can be the reason it is not being adopted for many modern applications.

1. Bad Viewing Angle

The viewing angle of TN LCD technology is low. A user has to look up from a 90-degree range for a maximum visual experience and good performance. In a lower angle range view, colors tend to be duller while images will be darker.

2. Bad Color Reproduction

Unlike LCD’s IPS and VA panels, using TN panels produces poor color reproduction. This negative aspect of TN LCD may have resulted from the restricted viewing angle. The bad color reproduction also translates to inaccuracy in color production from the TN panels. This makes TN LCD not suitable for image-oriented works such as a graphic design, video editing, and photo editing.

3. No Fixed Quality

Twisted Nematic LCD panels vary in quality from different producers. When a low-quality product is adopted, the other disadvantages will be more pronounced in the output of the implementation such as the color implementation and the viewing angle. Cheaper and poor quality TN panels can also bring out another demerit of susceptibility of dead pixels.

No doubt, TN LCD technology was a breakthrough for LCD development.

Its affordability and the change it brings into display technology are however being outshined by the incoming of superior display technologies such as IPS LCD, OLED and other latest development in display technology of today.

As smartphone screen size demand continues to favor larger designs, the display technology is equally another competition in the smartphone screen market. The rivalry between LCD screens and the new OLED screens is always in the news.

LCD display has always been with us and has offered great efficiency in the screen display technology.

 

The OLED Display And LCD Technology

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Organic Light-emitting Diode (OLED) display technologies are two strong competitors in the smartphone screen market. While LCD technology creates its images via a backlight that sends light via many layers of filters, OLED displays do not require the backlight mechanism. It is a much simpler and thinner display. Pixels are used to emit the green, red and blue color filters required for an image. OLED is a newer technology with much flexibility, durability and presents some unique features. The image retention feature of the OLED is the downside to this new technology and why it is not suitable for TVs.

LCD has however added innovation to its design by incorporating the great features flexibility and simplicity which OLED boasts of in some of its new production plans by manufacturers such as Samsung and Japan Display.

LG In The Market

LG Display, Apple’s smartphone screen supplier, in 2015 announced they will be spending about $8.4 billion on future display technology including flexible displays, OLED, and high-end LCD screens.

The CEO of LG Display sees the Chinese companies catching up with South Korean dominated LCD market not too long from now.

By 2020, the hope is having a 27% of the total LCD manufacture, rising from its 16% production capacity as stated by LG Display.

Sharp Hoping To Turn Things Around

Sharp, a major manufacturer of LCD screens has not been active in the market after losses recorded in the previous years before 2017. With a rebranding upcoming, Sharp has declared to pull away from LCD TV screen production of Japan in 2018.

Sharp hopes to go with the latest trend to prelaunch itself back into the display technology market.

The Japan display’s Loss Due To Competition In The Smartphone Screen

Japan Display, a top LCD smartphone screen maker made up of top electronic giants like Sony, Toshiba and Hitachi recently announced a cut in their workforce by 30%. The obvious reason is the 31.5 billion yen loss incurred in the last business quarter of April to June 2017. The impact of the competition from top companies like Samsung, LG, and Sharp is no doubt something to take seriously in the screen manufacturing market.

OLED screen is the new baby in the smart screen market. Japan Display failed to enter this market early enough allowing the likes of Samsung and LG to dominate with major big contract signing with Apple.

The New Technology In OLED Display And The Market Prospects

OLED screen is thinner and lighter compared to other display technologies. You can bend and fold it, giving it that flexibility feature and it is more durable.

LG Display is focused on manufacturing large screen OLED screens for TVs and LCDs for smaller screens like in smartphones. Samsung leads in the manufacture of OLED screens while the likes of LG are playing the catch-up. Samsung is at the forefront of dominance in the use of OLED screen for smartphones. It started in this line with its Galaxy smartphones. It has gone a step further in adopting curved OLED screens in Galaxy Edge groups of smartphones.

LG Display plans to get into mass production of flexible display from 2018 with about $1.8 billion investment into the flexible display in the coming year. A large screen size of the 5.7-inch dimension is the focus.

The company hopes to have 3 million handsets/month production capacity of flexible screens.

Television sets use to be bulky, heavy and energy consuming before the advent of the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) technology. LCD TVs are slim, lightweight and can be hung on walls. TVs are much like laptops now with flat screens.

This is made possible with the adoption of the LCD display technology that has long been used on our digital watches and calculators.

The Smectic phase is when the liquid crystals are cooled.

The Uniqueness Of Liquid Crystals

Liquid crystals are substances that fall between a solid and liquid material. It can be described to be an extension of the three states of matter because it is not any of those three. Just like states of matter, it can be in any of the two states it is commonly found with.

The Nematic phase is the state where it is more in the liquid state, where molecules move freely past each other along the same direction. The Smectic phase is when the liquid crystals are cooled. The molecules here form layers that are capable of sliding past each other.

LCD displays are implemented by utilizing the power of liquid crystals and polarized light.

The Working Principle Of LCD

LCD displays are implemented by utilizing the power of liquid crystals and polarized light. The images or pictures displayed on the LCD TV screen results from millions of pixels. Each pixel is a unique red, green or blue light that is switched OFF or ON to produce the picture that is seen in front of the screen.

In addition to plasma screen mode of operation, in LCD screens, the pixels get switched off or on electronically by using liquid crystals which rotates polarized light.

Applying electricity to Nematic liquid crystal straightens it out from its initial twisted-up form. This is the switching on and off process.

Polarised Light And Liquid Crystal And Composition Of The Technique

LCD screens work on a principle where the backlight is required for image display on the screen. At the back of the screen, there is a bright light which shines toward the viewer. At the front of this are the millions of pixels and sub-pixels colored blue, red and green. All pixels have polarizing glass filter at the back and another in front at 90-degrees. This makes the pixels to always appear dark.

In the midst of the two polarizing filters is the minute twisted nematic liquid crystal that untwists and twists (On and Off) through electronic means.

Each of the pixels is controlled separately by a transistor that is capable of switching it off or on several times per second.

Switching Off And On

When the nematic crystals are switched off, light passing through it is rotated at 90 degrees, giving way for light to flow pass the two polarizing filters. This makes the pixel brighter. On switching on the crystal, it does not rotate the light that is blocked by one of the two polarizers. Here the pixel appears dark.

Each of the pixels is controlled separately by a transistor that is capable of switching it off or on several times per second.

Switching On Procedure

  • The backlight of the screen shines
  • Apart from vibrating horizontal light waves, all other light waves are blocked by the horizontal polarizing filter in front of the shining light.
  • Only horizontally vibrating light waves get through.
  • The transistor switches on the pixel when electricity flow in the liquid crystal is switched off. This results in a twisted crystal. The resulting twisted crystal rotates by 90 degrees the light waves as they go past it.
  • The horizontally vibrating light waves that pass through the crystal come out vibrating horizontally.
  • All light waves are blocked by vertically polarizing filter except the ones vibrating vertically. The vibrating vertical light is now able to pass through vertical filters.
  • The pixel brightens up. The blue, red or green filters give the color of the pixel.

International Microelectronics Olympiad of Armenia is a worldwide knowledge-focused contest that brings together the brightest students in the world who are under the age of 30 and who are actively involved in microelectronics. College and university students tend to be the focus of the contest.

The contests test students in series of exams in written form and in stages to have the best students emerging in the process.

Peradventure two students have the same highest score; an hour test will be conducted to pick out the finalist from the country. All tests are in written form.

The Stages Of The Exams

There are two stages of the exams. The first stage is conducted in the participating country of the student. After which the best student from the country is selected by using the highest score in the exam. Peradventure two students have the same highest score; an hour test will be conducted to pick out the finalist from the country. All tests are in written form.

The final stage takes place in Armenia and the student with the highest score for each participating country will be sponsored to Armenia to take part in the final stage of the contest.

Participating Countries

 The number of participating countries is usually limited to 30 countries. The eligible countries most times have been Argentina, Armenia, Belarus, Artsakh, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Egypt, China, Georgia, Germany, India, Israel, Hong Kong, Jordan, Malaysia, Philippines, Russia, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Turkey, UAE, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Ukraine, Uruguay, Vietnam and USA.

Prize Categories

Though participants get a certificate of participation for taking part in the contest, prizes are awarded and the top prizes are as follows:

  • 1st Prize – Gold
  • 2nd prize – Silver
  • 3rd prize – Bronze

12th International Microelectronics Olympiad

This year, 2017, saw the 12th edition of the International Microelectronics Olympiad which was hosted by the Synopsys Armenia Education Department in Yerevan. The event which has 24 countries participating attracted 671 contestants from the countries. The Olympiad was organized in cooperation with IEEE (Institute of Electrical Electronics Engineers) and TTTC (Test Technology Technical Council).

Topics Covered In The 2017 Edition

The scope of topics covered under the 2017 International Microelectronics Olympiad are digital Integrated circuit design and test, semiconductor technology and devices, automation, analog and mixed-signal design and IC design and test, and mathematics and algorithmic issues of electronic design automation (EDA).

The countries represented at this year’s event are Argentina, Armenia, Brazil, Chile, Artsakh, China, Colombia, Georgia, Germany, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Peru, Iran, Philippines, Russia, Serbia, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Ukraine, the United States, Uruguay, and Vietnam.

As usual, the first stage of the written tests was done locally in participants’ countries and the exams test just fundamental aspect of the field. The second stage comprises more difficult engineering tasks that require complex solutions.

The final stage which was under the watchful eyes of the host countries prime minister had 20 countries represented by 41 contestants qualifying for the exams at this stage. These are Armenia, Artsakh, China, Egypt, Brazil, Georgia, Germany, Jordan, Peru, Iran, Philippines, Russia, Serbia, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Ukraine, USA, Uruguay, and Vietnam.

Some other major highlights were award of prizes to the winners of the Olympiad at a special ceremony at the Komitas Museum Institute.

These were the winners of the major prizes:

  • 1st prize or gold medal – Florin Burcea from Germany.
  • 2nd prize or silver medal – Akhsham Mahsa from the Islamic Republic of Iran.
  • 3rd prize or bronze medal – Kapralovic Katarina from Serbia.

The award presentation was later followed by a charitable reception and concert at the same venue.
Microelectronics is a fast growing field in the electronic world. Annual Olympiad such as the Armenia organized Olympiad is a step in the right direction to motive involvement in the field.

As electronics companies continue to expand, semiconductor companies are reaping the gains of their investment from the growing demand on their products by the electronic companies. Today’s electronic gadgets are all driven by microelectronics.

Many may not be familiar with these manufacturing companies because their products are hidden in minute forms in smartphones, tablets, TVs and other electronic devices that use them but they are quietly making it big with microelectronic solution manufacture.

For a list of leading manufacturers of semiconductor components, here are the leading companies in the USA and China.

Intel

Intel Corporation manufactures integrated devices. They design and produce motherboards chipsets, integrated circuits, and network interface controllers. The company was established in 1968 with an initial capital of $2.5 million sourced by Arthur Rock. With its headquarters in California, USA, Intel was the first producer of the metal oxide semiconductor. They are well known for the development of Pentium microprocessor in 1993. Their products can be found in HP and Dell computers. Intel’s sales have risen to about $56.31 billion.

Qualcomm

Qualcomm, Inc. is a designer and marketer of wireless telecommunications devices.

Telecommunication companies globally use Qualcomm’s patented CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) technologies that have played an important role for wireless communication standards.

Headquartered in the USA, Qualcomm has sales of about $15.44 of its products.

Texas Instruments

Based in Dallas, Texas Instruments is a company that started as an oil and gas focused company but went into semiconductor investment in 1958 and right now has over 40, 000 patents to their name in the electronics sector. It designs and manufactures semiconductors for different manufacturers of electronic products on a global scale.

Texas Instruments is a famous manufacturer of chips for digital processors, mobile devices, and analog semiconductors. The company is famous for the manufacture of calculators. The company has made sales in the region of about $12.35 billion.

Micron Technology

Micron Technology is a company with headquarters in the USA. The company markets semiconductor products globally. The products are used in consumer electronics, computers, automobiles servers and communications. Some of its other manufactured products are rewritable storage products and flash products. It has got a sales volume worth $12.84 billion.

The story in China is no different from what holds in the growth of the semiconductor market in the US. There is much competition in China in this industry. In the last five years, the manufacturers of chips have increased from 500 to 1, 300. In 2016 alone they generated $24.1 billion in revenue to the Chinese economy. Here are the leading companies to take note of in China.

Hisilicon Semiconductors

Hisilicon Semiconductors is a subsidiary of the smartphone company, Huawei, which is also the largest telecommunication gear maker in the world. Located in Shenzhen, the company sells silicon for display technology, surveillance cameras and wireless modem, among others.

The company has a financial base of $3.87 billion

Tsinghua Unigroup

Tsinghua Unigroup is a government backed and China’s strategy to boost the domestic production of semiconductors. The company bought two large companies with technology transfer deals with Intel, RDA Microelectronics and Spreadtrum communications in 2013. With about $1.86 billion worth, the company intends to expand further with an investment of $30 million to build a factory for memory chips.

Also in the plans is the investment plan by its chairman, Zhao Weiguo to invest $47 billion in the coming three years to make it the third biggest chipmaker after Intel and Samsung.

OmniVision

OmniVision is a company that designs image sensors used in tablets, smartphones and cameras. Though founded in the US, OmniVision has its revenue base in China.

It is the biggest smartphone maker in the world. It was sold to Chinese investors in 2015 for about $1.9 billion.

ZTE Microelectronics

ZTE Microelectronics is a subsidiary of ZTE, a telecommunication giant. It is a company that specializes in chip design. In 2016, the company was sanctioned and fined $1.9 billion by the US government for selling telecommunication products containing American components (parts) to Iran.

Semiconductors can hardly be done withoout in today’s world. They are important components in automobiles, communication device, elevators, phones, and computers, just to mention a few.

With the growth of other cutting-edge technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT) and others, products will always have semiconductors in them.

Now in the 21st century, image display takes different patterns and are increasingly changing with new developments.

The history line of display method started from the cathode ray tube.

Cathode Ray Technology

CRT (Cathode ray tube) is a big vacuum tube that is common with the bulky TV sets of the 20 century.

To display an image, CRT uses an electron beam which scans rows of phosphors line after line on the surface of the tube. The electron beam is deflected continuously.

Digital Light Processing (DLP) Technology

Texas Instruments invented and developed DLP for rear-projection TV displays. DLP uses a chip (Digital Micro-mirror Device) for its image display technique. DMD is made up of a number of tilt-able tiny mirrors.

Each micro-mirror stands for a pixel which tilts in a rapid motion.

A gray-scale type of image results here. Colors are added when light passes through the color wheel and reflect off the micro-mirror on the chip. This reflection is formed on the screen to produce the image.

Plasma Televisions use a technique just like CRT which makes images via phosphors lighting

Plasma Technology

The characteristics of this technology are the flat, thin and wall-mount capability that it presents. It was introduced in the early 2000s. In 2014, Panasonic, LG, and Samsung that were left in the production of this display mode have all discontinued its manufacture, though the products are still in use today.

Plasma Televisions use a technique just like CRT which makes images via phosphors lighting. In this case, the phosphors are lit by superheated gas and not electron beam.

They can be lit all at once, unlike CRT which does that in rows.

LCD is not limited to backlighting technology.

LCD Technology

LCD Technology is the most used display type in TVs. They share a thin design structure as Plasma TVs. For image display, phosphors are not lit up but turned on and off at a particular refresh rate. The most common refreshed rate of LCD TVs is 120 or 60 of a second. To display an image, the LCD’s pixels must be backlit. When the pixels are ON, they allow the backlight through but when off they don’t allow backlight through. The backlight system for LCD TVs can be from any source of HCL or CCFL (fluorescent) or LED.

LCD is not limited to backlighting technology. To improve LCD TVs color, quantum dot technology is a new development on LCD technology improvements.

After the release of Retina Display in 2010, enhancing screen resolution and quality of display has seen lots of changes on our smartphones, TVs, other handheld devices and wearable displays that is still new on the market. The adoption of this newfound display technology is no doubt an improvement on the conventional designs.

Most of the display applies quantum dot technology including highly bright reflectance and high ambient displays.

Integrating quantum dots into LCD backlight results in highly saturated and bright primary colors like those of OLED displays.

Impact Of Quantum Dot Technology On LCD

Quantum dot enhances to a great measure the performance of LCD display with the aid of quantum physics. Integrating quantum dots into LCD backlight results in highly saturated and bright primary colors like those of OLED displays.

Also, quantum dots enhance brightness and power efficiency by converting blue LED lights into a greatly saturated band of primary colors for the LCD display.

A good advantage of quantum dots is that it can bring out the exact colors for images that are extremely high and accurate picture colors without the white-point errors and lopsided color range. With the incoming of quantum dots technology, the future of LCD display technology is greatly enhanced to see many more years at least in the next five years. This outstanding technology is being adopted and integrated into many LCD smartphones, TVs, and other handheld devices.

Likewise, display quality is also improved by highly bright, low reflectance great ambient light displays. Every screen acts like a mirror that reflects everything that gets illuminated in front of it. Before this form of display technology was utilized, images produced were of low output and quality of degraded contrasts and interference that makes it difficult for viewing on the screen

Today’s technology adopted by manufacturers introduces bright and non-reflective displays.

OLED Technology

OLED is the most recent in display technology designed for consumers. It combines great features of past technologies. OLED technology uses various techniques in its implementation. LG uses the WRGB process. This process brings together white OLED’s pixels with green, red and blue color filters.

Just as governments are pressing on companies to manufacture eco-friendly technologies in their products, consumers of electronic products are yearning for low cost and small-sized devices. This requirement keeps driving the innovation that is seen in the new technologies of microelectronics.

Emerging technologies in microelectronics have a strong potential of efficiency in this area thus creating lots of opportunities in different areas of applications in electronics using microelectronics.

Here are the top ten trusted microelectronic technologies you should know about.

 1. Flexible Electronics

Flexible electronics is a promising and emerging industry that is hoped to have a stronger impact on the electronic industry in the nearer future. For flexible electronics which can also be described as lightweight implementation, they have good potential to create flexible electronics products such as in lighting, displays, memory storage and sensors, among others. The technology presented by flexible electronics makes it possible to easily implement new applications that were sometimes not feasible to attain before now. This includes applications such as smart textiles and informative human interfaces.

2. 3D Integration

 The 3D integration technology refers to various applications. The technology allows several traditional device layers to be placed on stacks and interconnected electronically. As an emerging technology, the trend is its support for more functional and powerful devices that are smaller and of low cost. Stacking of many layers of a device can improve performance of the circuit and lower power consumption. The 3D integration principle provides manufacturers the flexibility to combine other heterogeneous devices into a single circuit.

3. Haptic & Touch

The touch technology has brought a new approach to interacting with our devices. This allows human-computer relationship using various physical contacts with a device such as gestures and touch.

The major applications of this technology are in consumer electronics, medical, automotive, in industry and in-home automation.

4. Advanced Display

 The ever-dynamic digital content of today in addition to the growth of portable devices, is a strong influence to the shift towards modern display technologies like LCD display, 3D displays, on mobile phones, cameras and on computers.

These technologies have enhanced performance, great color gamut, faster response, better image quality and low power consumption. This gives a good user experience for viewers in contrasts to conventional designs.

5. Smart Grids

A smart grid provides an electricity network which intelligently integrates all actions of users linked to it, that is, the generators and the consumers. This is in a bid to deliver economical, secure and sustainable supplies. A smart grid creates enhancement in grid reliability by cutting down on the rate of power outages and the amount of power quality inadequacies.

With various sources of power generation such as solar and wind generation to switch to, smart grid provides a seamless integration for the alternative sources of energy.

6. Green Electronics

The push by the government for green manufacturing is a driver to the innovations in microelectronics for product design.

Production are tailored towards energy efficiency, green and clean solutions. This technology incorporates power saving capability, eco-friendliness such as reduced carbon emissions using microelectronics.

7. Wireless Charging

The use of electric cars and adopting smart devices are motivation for advancement in microelectronic technology.

Wireless charging of automotive device and electronics are possibilities through microelectronics. Companies are gearing up to fully adopting wireless charging methods.

8. Smart Antennas

Smart connection devices have opened up the manufacture of other smart application.

Communication via smart devices such as antennas is made feasible through the application of microelectronics and semiconductor implementation.

9. Data Storage

With microelectronics technology, utilization in the development of cloud-based and enterprise storage systems are the future of data storage.

Software-based storage solutions are frantically pursued. The transformation in the digital sector encourages the adoption of such data storage solutions that are driven by microelectronics.

10. Wearable Technology

The application of microelectronics has helped tremendously in the design of devices that we attach on our bodies.

As a great innovation from this implementation, wristbands, wearable displays, pendants and other fashionable healthcare products are designed to monitor an individual’s wellbeing.

Using sensors and embedded systems that are driven by microelectronics makes this possible to attain the feat in wearable electronic devices.

The speed of DC motor can be varied by applying various techniques. The drive system comprising the drive and the DC motor is vital to speed control in DC motor.

This is to regulate the amount of energy produced by the machine and the amount of work required to be done by the system at a given time duration.

The DC drive is a simple device that regulates the amount of electrical current sent to a DC motor.

DC Motors And Drives

The DC drive is a simple device that regulates the amount of electrical current sent to a DC motor. It supplies electrical energy in varying frequencies and quantities, hence controlling the speed of the electric motor.

The use of DC motor is increasingly growing in the metal industries, in mining, printing and in crane implementation. Though the current trend is the replacement of DC motors with more efficient AC drives, the task of getting this implemented is however not time and cost effective. Using the existing motor and improving on the drive is often the best option for industries.

DC drives provide great benefits to the DC motor such as control techniques, improved motor performance, system integration and reliability of the drive system which is a key component of DC motor speed control.

The speed of a DC motor can be varied by means of mechanical or electrical methods.

Speed Control Without Microcontroller

Designing and developing a circuit without a microcontroller integrated into it lowers costs and other downsides like the limited range in the circuit design.

Methods

The speed of a DC motor can be varied by means of mechanical or electrical methods. The use of a microcontroller for speed control is gradually fading away. The disadvantage of utilizing a microcontroller in system design is the somewhat large size of the implementation.

Using Direction Control And Microprocessors

Without using microcontroller, speed control can be achieved through direction control. This is done by reversing the input voltage terminals of the motor to have the required output of energy. Two-wheeler designs are often used to implement this method. Microprocessors are other devices used to achieve speed control in a DC motor.

In this approach, sensing the current and terminal voltage is implemented. This results in comparing the reference speed of the motor to its actual speed to generate an appropriate control signal which goes into the triggering unit to cause a required output.

Pulse Width Modulation Method

PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) is a technique for producing an analog signal using a digital source. A Pulse Width Modulation signal is made up of two components namely; the frequency and the duty circle. These describe the behavior of the signal.

The duty circle defines the quantity of time the signal is in ON (high) state. It is shown as a percentage of the period it takes to make a complete circle.

The frequency of the signal defines how fast a complete circle is completed by the PWM and hence how fast it switches between Low and High states. By cycling a signal at Low and High state at a fast rate with the specified amount of duty circle, the output’s behaviors can be compared to be a frequent voltage analog signal when sending energy to devices.

Pulse Width Modulation refers to the process of varying the duty cycle. This reduces the terminal voltage with a heat loss. 555 timer can be used to implement this technique. Double Pole Double Through (DPDT) switch can be used to change the direction of the voltage. A semiconductor-type H-bridge is preferable to implement this aspect of the design on speed regulation.

Factors Affecting The Speed Of Dc Motor

The operation of a DC motor is typically designed such that when a current carrying conductor is placed within a magnetic field, there is bound to be the mechanical force that goes through the conductors. A permanent magnetic DC motor, however, does not have field circuit. It has just the armature circuit. This differentiates it from other DC motors.

The factors affecting DC control are therefore:

  • The applied voltage
  • The flux
  • The voltage across an armature

Considering these factors, speed control can then be achieved through the following techniques:

  • Flux control method: This is done by varying the current via the field winding, thus altering the flux.
  • Rheostatic control: changing the armature route resistance which also changes the applied voltage across the armature.
  • Voltage method: changing the applied voltage